Viral Infections

Published on 06/06/2015 by admin

Filed under Pediatrics

Last modified 06/06/2015

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97 Viral Infections

Epstein-Barr Virus

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a common virus: most people become infected sometime in their lives. The clinical syndrome frequently associated with EBV is infectious mononucleosis, or “mono.” In socioeconomically disadvantaged areas, infants and children are most commonly affected, but adolescents are more commonly affected in affluent areas.

Measles

In the United States, the current rate of measles infection is less than one case per million people; however, historically, more than 90% of children were infected before the age of 15 years. This change is entirely attributable to the measles vaccine that was introduced in 1963. An outbreak that occurred between 1989 and 1991 resulted in 55,000 cases and prompted implementation of the two-dose vaccine. The majority of cases of measles are imported into the United States from abroad or are import related.

Herpes Simplex Virus

There are 2 types of herpes simplex virus (HSV), type 1 and type 2, that can cause a variety of illnesses depending on the host and the site of infection. A primary herpes infection occurs in those who have never been infected with either HSV-1 or HSV-2. A nonprimary first infection occurs when an individual who was previously infected with one type of HSV then becomes infected with another type. A recurrent infection is a reactivation of the virus from the latent state. HSV can also cause severe neonatal infection (see Chapter 105).

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