Venoocclusive Disease

Published on 21/04/2017 by admin

Filed under Pathology

Last modified 21/04/2017

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Marked Congestion
In severe cases, venoocclusive disease is characterized by marked congestion in the sinusoids and can be accompanied by areas of hemorrhage image .

Congestion and Plate Atrophy
Endothelial injury in sinusoids and small hepatic veins leads to venous outflow obstruction that manifests as sinusoidal dilatation, congestion, and hepatic plate atrophy.
Venous Occlusion
Endothelial swelling with subendothelial edema and fibrosis image leads to partial occlusion of the lumen of a small hepatic vein in venoocclusive disease. These characteristic lesions may not be evident in biopsies.
Sickle Cell Crisis
Sinusoidal obstruction caused by occlusion of hepatic sinusoids by sickled red blood cells image in hepatic sickle cell crisis is shown. This is a rare phenomenon but can cause sinusoidal obstruction syndrome and present in an acute fashion.



• Venoocclusive disease (VOD)


• Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS)



• Stem cell transplantation and high-dose chemotherapy
• Herbal medicines containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids
• Rare complication of liver transplantation
• Rare causes of sinusoidal obstruction: Sickle cell crisis, Plasmodium falciparum malaria, extensive infiltration by neoplastic cells

Risk Factors

• Older age and poor performance status
• HLA disparity in allogeneic stem cell transplant
• Preexisting liver dysfunction
• Prior abdominal radiation
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