Published on 02/03/2015 by admin

Filed under Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Last modified 02/03/2015

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1. What is osteoporosis?

2. What are fragility fractures?

3. What are the complications of osteoporotic fractures?

4. What factors contribute most to the risk of an osteoporotic fracture?

5. What are the currently accepted indications for BMD measurement?

6. How is BMD currently measured?

7. How do you read a bone densitometry report?

8. How is the diagnosis of osteoporosis made?

9. What are the major risk factors for the development of osteoporosis?

Non-modifiable risk factors Age
  Race (Caucasian, Asian)
  Female gender
  Early menopause
  Slender build
  Positive family history
Modifiable risk factors Low calcium intake
  Low vitamin D intake
  Estrogen deficiency
  Sedentary lifestyle
  Cigarette smoking
  Alcohol excess (> 2 drinks/day)
  Caffeine excess (> 2 servings/day)

10. What other conditions must be considered as causes of low BMD?

11. Outline a cost-effective evaluation to rule out other causes of low bone mass.

12. How do you determine whether a patient has had a previous vertebral fracture?

13. What are the most significant risk factors for frequent falls?

image Use of sedatives

image Visual impairment

image Cognitive impairment

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