Hyperthyroidism

Published on 02/03/2015 by admin

Filed under Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Last modified 02/03/2015

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CHAPTER 33

Hyperthyroidism*

1. What is the difference between thyrotoxicosis and hyperthyroidism?

2. Define the term autonomy as it applies to thyroid hyperfunction.

3. What is subclinical thyrotoxicosis?

4. What are the long-term consequences of subclinical thyrotoxicosis?

5. Does subclinical hyperthyroidism require treatment?

6. List the three most common causes of hyperthyroidism.

7. Define Graves’ disease

8. Explain toxic multinodular goiter.

9. What are autonomously functioning thyroid nodules?

10. What is the Jod-Basedow phenomenon?

11. What are some rarer causes of hyperthyroidism?

12. How do thyrotoxic patients present clinically?

13. What is apathetic hyperthyroidism?

14. Describe the physical signs of thyrotoxicosis.

15. How does hyperthyroidism cause eye disease?

16. What laboratory testing should be performed to confirm thyrotoxicosis?

17. When is thyroid antibody testing needed in patients with hyperthyroidism?

The cause of hyperthyroidism can usually be determined with history, physical examination, and radionuclide studies. Testing for TSH receptor antibodies can be used to diagnose Graves’ disease during pregnancy, when radionuclide imaging is contraindicated. Such testing is also useful in (1) pregnant women with current or previously treated Graves’ disease to determine the risk of fetal and neonatal thyroid dysfunction due to transplacental passage of stimulating or blocking antibodies, (2) biochemically euthyroid patients with ophthalmopathy, (3) patients with alternating periods of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism as a result of fluctuations in blocking and stimulating TSH receptor antibodies, and (4) atypical cases in which differentiation of Graves’ disease from toxic multinodular goiter is challenging and therapeutically essential.

18. What is the difference between a thyroid scan and an uptake test?