Diagnosis, Therapy, and Prevention of Viral Diseases

Published on 18/02/2015 by admin

Filed under Allergy and Immunology

Last modified 18/02/2015

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Chapter 20

Diagnosis, Therapy, and Prevention of Viral Diseases

Laboratory Identification of Viruses

Overview

Microscopic examination of clinical specimens

Viral isolation and growth

Laboratory assays for detecting viral proteins

1. Hemagglutination: viral hemagglutinin (HA) protruding from the surface of some enveloped viruses binds to erythrocytes of specific species, causing them to clump.

2. Immunologic assays

• Virus-specific antibody is used to detect free virions and free or cell-associated viral proteins.

• Immunofluorescence (IF) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) detect viral proteins expressed on the surface of infected cells (see Fig. 5-3).

• Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) detect and quantitate free virions or viral proteins in a sample.

• Direct versus indirect assays

Laboratory assays for detecting viral nucleic acids