Small and Midsized Enveloped RNA Viruses

Published on 18/02/2015 by admin

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Last modified 18/02/2015

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Chapter 25

Small and Midsized Enveloped RNA Viruses

Rhabdoviridae

Overview

Pathogenesis and disease progression (Table 25-1)

1. Rabies is a zoonotic disease, with unvaccinated domestic pets (dogs and cats) and wild skunks, raccoons (most common), and bats being the major reservoirs of the rabies virus.

2. The virus is transmitted to humans in saliva from an infected animal (via bite) or in aerosols from infected bats (via inhalation).

3. Inoculation

4. Incubation phase

5. Prodrome phase

6. Neurologic phase

7. Coma and death are nearly always inevitable, unless prophylactic treatment is administered during incubation phase.

Diagnosis of rabies

1. Rabies is diagnosed based on neurologic symptoms and history of an animal bite or contact with bats, with laboratory tests providing confirmation (Box 25-1).

2. Negri bodies (intracytoplasmic viral inclusions) are found in 70% to 90% of infected brains (animal or human).

3. Viral antigen in the CNS and brain is detectable by immunofluorescence at postmortem.

4. RT-PCR detection of genome

Prevention and prophylaxis

1. Preexposure vaccination of pets and high-risk personnel (veterinarians and animal handlers) is recommended.

2. Postexposure prophylaxis can prevent disease in infected people if instituted soon after exposure.

3. Animal immunizations

II Other Zoonotic Enveloped (–) RNA Viruses