# Conversion of Clinical Measurements of Numbers, Time, and Temperature

• Express Arabic numbers in Roman numerals

• Express Roman numerals in Arabic numbers

• Convert time between standard time and military (or universal) time

## Arabic Numbers And Roman Numerals

### Roman Numeral Use

The rules for using Roman numerals are as follows:

• When a numeral is repeated, the value of the number is the number of times for the repetition to provide the needed number (e.g., III = 3).

• A numeral may be repeated up to three times in succession and no more (e.g., IIII as 4 is incorrect; the correct way to express 4 is IV).

• The letters V, L, and D are not repeated (e.g., VV is incorrect for 10).

• When a numeral of lower value is placed following a larger numeral value, the smaller numeral is added to the larger numeral (e.g., XI = 11, VI = 6). Only I, X, or C can be used in this manner.

• If the smaller numeral value is placed before the larger numeral value, the smaller value is subtracted from the larger numeral value (e.g., IV = 5 − 1, or 4). Again, only I, X, or C may be used in this manner.

• Only one smaller number may be placed either before a larger number (e.g., IIX is not 8; rather, 8 is expressed as VIII).

• The subtracted number must be no less than one tenth of the value of the number from which it is subtracted (e.g., X may be placed before a C or an L but cannot be used with M or D. Thus 49 must be stated as XLIX rather than IL).

• Use the largest value numerals possible (e.g., 15 is XV, not VVV or XIIIII).

• Use I before V and X (the next two higher numerals). The numeral X may be used before L and C (the next higher numerals). Although seldom used, C may be used before D and M.

• is used as an abbreviation for one-half.

• Medical notations of Roman numerals are usually written in the lower case with a line drawn over the numerals to prevent misinterpretation. The lowercase “i” has the line usually with the dot above the line, not below as commonly written.