Acute and chronic complications of diabetes

Published on 02/03/2015 by admin

Filed under Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Last modified 02/03/2015

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CHAPTER 2

Acute and chronic complications of diabetes

1. What are the acute complications of diabetes?

2. Describe the symptoms of hyperglycemia.

3. What is DKA?

4. What causes DKA?

5. What illnesses may trigger DKA?

6. What are the signs and symptoms of DKA?

7. How is DKA diagnosed?

8. Is the ketone test result always positive with DKA?

9. What lab tests are recommended in the first hour of treatment for DKA?

10. Summarize the strategy for fluid and potassium administration in the first hour.

11. How should insulin treatment be started with DKA?

12. Summarize the strategy for clinical assessment, and fluid and potassium administration in the second hour of treatment.

13. How should insulin be adjusted during treatment?

14. Summarize the basic strategy after the second hour of treatment.

15. When can the insulin infusion be discontinued?

16. What other interventions may be necessary in the treatment of DKA?

17. What is hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome?

18. Who is at risk for HHS and why?

19. What are the signs of HHS?

20. Why is ketoacidosis typically not seen in HHS?

21. What are the symptoms of HHS?

22. What is the most common presenting symptom of HHS?

23. What is the hallmark laboratory finding in patients with HHS?

24. What is the first step in treating HHS?

25. Should isotonic or hypotonic fluids be used?

26. What role does insulin play in the treatment of HHS?

27. Describe the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia.