Urology

Published on 10/04/2015 by admin

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Last modified 10/04/2015

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CHAPTER 16 Urology

Congenital disorders of the urinary tract

Kidney and ureter

Haematuria

Haematuria is the passage of red blood cells in the urine. This may vary from a few red cells detected on ‘stix’ testing to the passage of frank blood. Haematuria may be noted at the beginning of micturition, throughout micturition or at the end of micturition. Care must be taken to avoid menstrual bleeding being mistaken for haematuria. Other causes of red urine include excessive beetroot ingestion, rifampicin, porphyria, haemoglobinuria and myoglobinuria. (For causes of haematuria → Table 16.1.)

TABLE 16.1 Causes of haematuria

Kidney Glomerular disease
Polycystic kidneys
Carcinoma
Stone
Trauma (including renal biopsy)
Tuberculosis
Embolism
Renal vein thrombosis
Vascular malformation
Ureter Stone
Neoplasm
Bladder Carcinoma
Stone
Trauma
Inflammatory – cystitis, tuberculosis, bilharzia
Prostate Benign prostatic hypertrophy
Neoplasm
Urethra Trauma
Stone
Urethritis
Neoplasm
General Anticoagulants
Thrombocytopenia
Haemophilia
Sickle cell disease
Malaria

Obstructive uropathy

Calculous disease

Types of calculi

Treatment

Acute symptoms – ureteric colic: