Traumatic Brain Injury

Published on 21/03/2015 by admin

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Last modified 21/03/2015

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Chapter 80 Traumatic Brain Injury

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common injury in children and the most common cause of traumatic death. TBI is often caused by a primary injury, and is followed by a secondary injury. The primary injury is the actual trauma itself, because it occurs at the time of impact on the central nervous system and may cause damage and/or death to the brain cells. A hypoxic insult may also cause a primary injury. The secondary injury is caused by the brain’s response to the trauma and evolves over a period of hours to days after the injury. The secondary injury can result in the loss of cerebral autoregulation, development of cerebral edema, and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier. The secondary injury is exacerbated by systemic hypotension or hypertension, ischemia, hypoxia, or hypercapnia.

There are several types of brain injury:

Brain injuries are also commonly classified in terms of severity (i.e., mild, moderate, severe).