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76. Sarcoidosis


Sarcoidosis is a chronic multisystem inflammatory disease characterized by noncaseating granulomas as well as lymphocytic alveolitis.


In the United States the overall incidence of sarcoidosis ranges from 5:100,000 to 40:100,000. Among Caucasians the incidence is about 11:100,000, but among African Americans the incidence is about 34:100,000. Internationally the incidence varies with the country as well as the degree of development of the country. For example, in Sweden the incidence is about 20:100,000, whereas in Japan the incidence is about 1.3:100,000. Sarcoidosis has been reported in most countries. In developing countries it is frequently misdiagnosed as tuberculosis. This disease affects men more frequently than women by a 2:1 ratio.


The true cause of sarcoidosis is not known. There is evidence of both genetic and environmental causative factors. Sarcoidosis is not a malignant disease, nor is it an autoimmune disease.
Possible Pathogenic Causes of Sarcoidosis

• Chlamydia
• Epstein-Barr virus
• Mycobacteria species
• Mycoplasma species
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Sarcoidosis. Erythematous annular plaques.

Signs and Symptoms

• Alveolitis
• Anorexia
• Bell’s palsy
• Deafness
• Depressed gag reflex
• Dysphagia
• Elevated monocyte count
• Fatigue
• Hepatomegaly
• Hilar lymphadenopathy
• Hoarseness
• Interstitial nephritis
• Iritis
• Night sweats
• Nonproductive cough
• Peripheral lymphadenopathy
• Shortness of breath
• Skin lesions
• Splenomegaly
• T-cell lymphadenopathy
• Vertigo
• Vocal cord paralysis
• Weight loss

Medical Management

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