CHAPTER 27 Nutrition
A. Nutrition is the provision of the materials necessary to nourish the body and sustain life (Box 27-1).
B. Malnutrition is the lack of adequate intake of nutrients induced by altered dietary intake or nutrient utilization resulting from consuming too little food, lack of vital nutrients, or impaired absorption or metabolism due to disease.
II. Types of Delivery of Nutritional Support
III. Enteral Nutrition
IV. Parenteral Nutrition
A. Parenteral nutrition is the use of intravenous nutrients. Patients with a nonfunctioning gastrointestinal tract receive therapy to ensure they are adequately nourished.
d. Osmolarities greater than 900 mOsm/L may irritate the peripheral vein.
F. TPN components
1. Carbohydrates (dextrose)
b. Maximal carbohydrate utilization
2. Fats (lipid emulsion [Intralipids, Liposyn])
3. Protein (amino acids)
c. Protein requirements increase depending on health of patient